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Guide: Forging process is a combination of forging and stamping. It is a forming process method that uses the hammer, anvil block and punch of forging machinery to exert pressure on the blank to cause plastic deformation, so as to obtain the required shape and size.
1 About forging
Free forging - refers to the forming method of placing metal blank between the upper and lower parts of forging equipment and exerting impact force or pressure to make it free deformation and obtain the required shape.
During the forging process, except for the part of the surface that contacts with the upper and lower irons or other auxiliary tools, the blank is free surface, and the deformation is not limited. The shape and size of the forging are guaranteed by the technology of the forger, and the equipment and tools used are universal.
Free forging is mainly used for single piece and small batch production, and is also the only production method for large forgings.
Model forging - a method for obtaining forgings by placing metal blanks heated to the forging temperature in a die forging die chamber with a certain shape under pressure and deformation.
Features: high productivity, high dimensional accuracy and surface quality of forgings, and high material utilization rate; Forging parts with complex shapes, high die costs and expensive equipment.
Note: The forging shall not be arbitrarily large, and generally shall not exceed 150kg.
Die forging can be divided into tire die forging, hammer die forging and press die forging according to the equipment used
2 Equipment introduction
The tools used in the production of free forging are simple and universal, so it has a wide range of applications.
The mass of forgings that can be forged ranges from less than 1 kg to 3000 t.
In heavy machinery, free forging is the only forming method to produce large and extra large forgings.
3 Free forging process
Free forging process can be divided into three categories: basic process, auxiliary process and finishing process
(1) The basic process is to make the metal blank realize the main deformation requirements and reach or basically reach the required shape and size of the forging.
(2) Auxiliary process refers to the pre deformation process before the basic process. Such as chamfer, shoulder, etc.
(3) Finishing process is to improve the size and position accuracy of forgings after the basic process is completed.
4 Basic process
1) Upsetting: the process in which the height of the whole or part of the blank decreases and the sectional area increases.
2) Elongation: The forging process that reduces the cross section of the blank and increases its length.
It is mainly used for forming shaft and rod forgings, and its role is to improve the internal quality of forgings; The types of lengthening include flat iron lengthening, mandrel lengthening, mandrel reaming, etc.
3) Punching: A forging process in which a punch is used to punch the blank out of a through hole or an impermeable hole.
When punching the through hole on the thin blank, the punch can be used to punch out at one time; If the blank is thick, first punch one side of the blank to 2/3 of the hole depth, then pull out the punch, turn over the workpiece, and punch through from the opposite side to avoid burr punching around the hole
4) Bending: the process of bending the blank into the desired shape.
Before bending deformation, the blank shall be forged into the required shape to make the volume reasonably distributed, so as to obtain qualified products.
5) Torsion: the process of rotating one part of the blank relative to another part around its axis for a certain angle.
6) Cutting: The process of cutting off one or more parts of the blank to obtain the required shape of the forging.